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/** @file mdb.c
 *	@brief memory-mapped database library
 *
 *	A Btree-based database management library modeled loosely on the
 *	BerkeleyDB API, but much simplified.
 */
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/*
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 * Copyright 2011-2013 Howard Chu, Symas Corp.
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 * All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted only as authorized by the OpenLDAP
 * Public License.
 *
 * A copy of this license is available in the file LICENSE in the
 * top-level directory of the distribution or, alternatively, at
 * <http://www.OpenLDAP.org/license.html>.
 *
 * This code is derived from btree.c written by Martin Hedenfalk.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2009, 2010 Martin Hedenfalk <martin@bzero.se>
 *
 * Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
 * purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
 * copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
 *
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES
 * WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
 * MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR
 * ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
 * WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN
 * ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF
 * OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
 */
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#ifndef _GNU_SOURCE
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#define _GNU_SOURCE 1
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#endif
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#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/param.h>
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#ifdef _WIN32
#include <windows.h>
#else
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#include <sys/uio.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_FILE_H
#include <sys/file.h>
#endif
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#include <fcntl.h>
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#endif
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#include <assert.h>
#include <errno.h>
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#include <limits.h>
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#include <stddef.h>
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#include <inttypes.h>
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#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <unistd.h>
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#if !(defined(BYTE_ORDER) || defined(__BYTE_ORDER))
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#include <netinet/in.h>
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#include <resolv.h>	/* defines BYTE_ORDER on HPUX and Solaris */
#endif

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#if defined(__APPLE__) || defined (BSD)
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# define MDB_USE_POSIX_SEM	1
# define MDB_FDATASYNC		fsync
#elif defined(ANDROID)
# define MDB_FDATASYNC		fsync
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#endif

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#ifndef _WIN32
#include <pthread.h>
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#ifdef MDB_USE_POSIX_SEM
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#include <semaphore.h>
#endif
#endif

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#ifdef USE_VALGRIND
#include <valgrind/memcheck.h>
#define VGMEMP_CREATE(h,r,z)    VALGRIND_CREATE_MEMPOOL(h,r,z)
#define VGMEMP_ALLOC(h,a,s) VALGRIND_MEMPOOL_ALLOC(h,a,s)
#define VGMEMP_FREE(h,a) VALGRIND_MEMPOOL_FREE(h,a)
#define VGMEMP_DESTROY(h)	VALGRIND_DESTROY_MEMPOOL(h)
#define VGMEMP_DEFINED(a,s)	VALGRIND_MAKE_MEM_DEFINED(a,s)
#else
#define VGMEMP_CREATE(h,r,z)
#define VGMEMP_ALLOC(h,a,s)
#define VGMEMP_FREE(h,a)
#define VGMEMP_DESTROY(h)
#define VGMEMP_DEFINED(a,s)
#endif

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#ifndef BYTE_ORDER
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# if (defined(_LITTLE_ENDIAN) || defined(_BIG_ENDIAN)) && !(defined(_LITTLE_ENDIAN) && defined(_BIG_ENDIAN))
/* Solaris just defines one or the other */
#  define LITTLE_ENDIAN	1234
#  define BIG_ENDIAN	4321
#  ifdef _LITTLE_ENDIAN
#   define BYTE_ORDER  LITTLE_ENDIAN
#  else
#   define BYTE_ORDER  BIG_ENDIAN
#  endif
# else
#  define BYTE_ORDER   __BYTE_ORDER
# endif
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#endif
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#ifndef LITTLE_ENDIAN
#define LITTLE_ENDIAN	__LITTLE_ENDIAN
#endif
#ifndef BIG_ENDIAN
#define BIG_ENDIAN	__BIG_ENDIAN
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#endif

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#if defined(__i386) || defined(__x86_64) || defined(_M_IX86)
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#define MISALIGNED_OK	1
#endif

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#include "lmdb.h"
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#include "midl.h"

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#if (BYTE_ORDER == LITTLE_ENDIAN) == (BYTE_ORDER == BIG_ENDIAN)
# error "Unknown or unsupported endianness (BYTE_ORDER)"
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#elif (-6 & 5) || CHAR_BIT != 8 || UINT_MAX < 0xffffffff || ULONG_MAX % 0xFFFF
# error "Two's complement, reasonably sized integer types, please"
#endif

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/** @defgroup internal	MDB Internals
 *	@{
 */
/** @defgroup compat	Windows Compatibility Macros
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 *	A bunch of macros to minimize the amount of platform-specific ifdefs
 *	needed throughout the rest of the code. When the features this library
 *	needs are similar enough to POSIX to be hidden in a one-or-two line
 *	replacement, this macro approach is used.
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 *	@{
 */
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#ifdef _WIN32
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#define MDB_PIDLOCK	0
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#define pthread_t	DWORD
#define pthread_mutex_t	HANDLE
#define pthread_key_t	DWORD
#define pthread_self()	GetCurrentThreadId()
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#define pthread_key_create(x,y)	\
	((*(x) = TlsAlloc()) == TLS_OUT_OF_INDEXES ? ErrCode() : 0)
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#define pthread_key_delete(x)	TlsFree(x)
#define pthread_getspecific(x)	TlsGetValue(x)
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#define pthread_setspecific(x,y)	(TlsSetValue(x,y) ? 0 : ErrCode())
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#define pthread_mutex_unlock(x)	ReleaseMutex(x)
#define pthread_mutex_lock(x)	WaitForSingleObject(x, INFINITE)
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#define LOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	pthread_mutex_lock((env)->me_rmutex)
#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	pthread_mutex_unlock((env)->me_rmutex)
#define LOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	pthread_mutex_lock((env)->me_wmutex)
#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	pthread_mutex_unlock((env)->me_wmutex)
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#define getpid()	GetCurrentProcessId()
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#define	MDB_FDATASYNC(fd)	(!FlushFileBuffers(fd))
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#define	MDB_MSYNC(addr,len,flags)	(!FlushViewOfFile(addr,len))
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#define	ErrCode()	GetLastError()
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#define GET_PAGESIZE(x) {SYSTEM_INFO si; GetSystemInfo(&si); (x) = si.dwPageSize;}
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#define	close(fd)	(CloseHandle(fd) ? 0 : -1)
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#define	munmap(ptr,len)	UnmapViewOfFile(ptr)
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#ifdef PROCESS_QUERY_LIMITED_INFORMATION
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#define MDB_PROCESS_QUERY_LIMITED_INFORMATION PROCESS_QUERY_LIMITED_INFORMATION
#else
#define MDB_PROCESS_QUERY_LIMITED_INFORMATION 0x1000
#endif
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#define	Z	"I"
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#else
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#define	Z	"z"			/**< printf format modifier for size_t */
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	/** For MDB_LOCK_FORMAT: True if readers take a pid lock in the lockfile */
#define MDB_PIDLOCK			1

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#ifdef MDB_USE_POSIX_SEM
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#define LOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	mdb_sem_wait((env)->me_rmutex)
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#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	sem_post((env)->me_rmutex)
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#define LOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	mdb_sem_wait((env)->me_wmutex)
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#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	sem_post((env)->me_wmutex)
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static int
mdb_sem_wait(sem_t *sem)
{
   int rc;
   while ((rc = sem_wait(sem)) && (rc = errno) == EINTR) ;
   return rc;
}

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#else
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	/** Lock the reader mutex.
	 */
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#define LOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	pthread_mutex_lock(&(env)->me_txns->mti_mutex)
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	/** Unlock the reader mutex.
	 */
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#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	pthread_mutex_unlock(&(env)->me_txns->mti_mutex)
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	/** Lock the writer mutex.
	 *	Only a single write transaction is allowed at a time. Other writers
	 *	will block waiting for this mutex.
	 */
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#define LOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	pthread_mutex_lock(&(env)->me_txns->mti_wmutex)
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	/** Unlock the writer mutex.
	 */
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#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	pthread_mutex_unlock(&(env)->me_txns->mti_wmutex)
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#endif	/* MDB_USE_POSIX_SEM */
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	/** Get the error code for the last failed system function.
	 */
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#define	ErrCode()	errno
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	/** An abstraction for a file handle.
	 *	On POSIX systems file handles are small integers. On Windows
	 *	they're opaque pointers.
	 */
#define	HANDLE	int

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	/**	A value for an invalid file handle.
	 *	Mainly used to initialize file variables and signify that they are
	 *	unused.
	 */
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#define INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE	(-1)
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	/** Get the size of a memory page for the system.
	 *	This is the basic size that the platform's memory manager uses, and is
	 *	fundamental to the use of memory-mapped files.
	 */
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#define	GET_PAGESIZE(x)	((x) = sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE))
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#endif
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#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(MDB_USE_POSIX_SEM)
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#define MNAME_LEN	32
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#else
#define MNAME_LEN	(sizeof(pthread_mutex_t))
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#endif

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/** @} */
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#ifndef _WIN32
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/**	A flag for opening a file and requesting synchronous data writes.
 *	This is only used when writing a meta page. It's not strictly needed;
 *	we could just do a normal write and then immediately perform a flush.
 *	But if this flag is available it saves us an extra system call.
 *
 *	@note If O_DSYNC is undefined but exists in /usr/include,
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 * preferably set some compiler flag to get the definition.
 * Otherwise compile with the less efficient -DMDB_DSYNC=O_SYNC.
 */
#ifndef MDB_DSYNC
# define MDB_DSYNC	O_DSYNC
#endif
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#endif

/** Function for flushing the data of a file. Define this to fsync
 *	if fdatasync() is not supported.
 */
#ifndef MDB_FDATASYNC
# define MDB_FDATASYNC	fdatasync
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#endif

#ifndef MDB_MSYNC
# define MDB_MSYNC(addr,len,flags)	msync(addr,len,flags)
#endif

#ifndef MS_SYNC
#define	MS_SYNC	1
#endif

#ifndef MS_ASYNC
#define	MS_ASYNC	0
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#endif

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	/** A page number in the database.
	 *	Note that 64 bit page numbers are overkill, since pages themselves
	 *	already represent 12-13 bits of addressable memory, and the OS will
	 *	always limit applications to a maximum of 63 bits of address space.
	 *
	 *	@note In the #MDB_node structure, we only store 48 bits of this value,
	 *	which thus limits us to only 60 bits of addressable data.
	 */
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typedef MDB_ID	pgno_t;
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	/** A transaction ID.
	 *	See struct MDB_txn.mt_txnid for details.
	 */
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typedef MDB_ID	txnid_t;
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/** @defgroup debug	Debug Macros
 *	@{
 */
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#ifndef MDB_DEBUG
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	/**	Enable debug output.  Needs variable argument macros (a C99 feature).
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	 *	Set this to 1 for copious tracing. Set to 2 to add dumps of all IDLs
	 *	read from and written to the database (used for free space management).
	 */
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#define MDB_DEBUG 0
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#endif
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#if MDB_DEBUG
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static int mdb_debug;
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static txnid_t mdb_debug_start;
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	/**	Print a debug message with printf formatting.
	 *	Requires double parenthesis around 2 or more args.
	 */
# define DPRINTF(args) ((void) ((mdb_debug) && DPRINTF0 args))
# define DPRINTF0(fmt, ...) \
	fprintf(stderr, "%s:%d " fmt "\n", __func__, __LINE__, __VA_ARGS__)
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#else
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# define DPRINTF(args)	((void) 0)
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#endif
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	/**	Print a debug string.
	 *	The string is printed literally, with no format processing.
	 */
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#define DPUTS(arg)	DPRINTF(("%s", arg))
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	/** Debuging output value of a cursor DBI: Negative in a sub-cursor. */
#define DDBI(mc) \
	(((mc)->mc_flags & C_SUB) ? -(int)(mc)->mc_dbi : (int)(mc)->mc_dbi)
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/** @} */
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	/** A default memory page size.
	 *	The actual size is platform-dependent, but we use this for
	 *	boot-strapping. We probably should not be using this any more.
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	 *	The #GET_PAGESIZE() macro is used to get the actual size.
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	 *
	 *	Note that we don't currently support Huge pages. On Linux,
	 *	regular data files cannot use Huge pages, and in general
	 *	Huge pages aren't actually pageable. We rely on the OS
	 *	demand-pager to read our data and page it out when memory
	 *	pressure from other processes is high. So until OSs have
	 *	actual paging support for Huge pages, they're not viable.
	 */
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#define MDB_PAGESIZE	 4096
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	/** The minimum number of keys required in a database page.
	 *	Setting this to a larger value will place a smaller bound on the
	 *	maximum size of a data item. Data items larger than this size will
	 *	be pushed into overflow pages instead of being stored directly in
	 *	the B-tree node. This value used to default to 4. With a page size
	 *	of 4096 bytes that meant that any item larger than 1024 bytes would
	 *	go into an overflow page. That also meant that on average 2-3KB of
	 *	each overflow page was wasted space. The value cannot be lower than
	 *	2 because then there would no longer be a tree structure. With this
	 *	value, items larger than 2KB will go into overflow pages, and on
	 *	average only 1KB will be wasted.
	 */
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#define MDB_MINKEYS	 2
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	/**	A stamp that identifies a file as an MDB file.
	 *	There's nothing special about this value other than that it is easily
	 *	recognizable, and it will reflect any byte order mismatches.
	 */
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#define MDB_MAGIC	 0xBEEFC0DE
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	/**	The version number for a database's datafile format. */
#define MDB_DATA_VERSION	 1
	/**	The version number for a database's lockfile format. */
#define MDB_LOCK_VERSION	 1
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	/**	@brief The maximum size of a key in the database.
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	 *
	 *	The library rejects bigger keys, and cannot deal with records
	 *	with bigger keys stored by a library with bigger max keysize.
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	 *
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	 *	We require that keys all fit onto a regular page. This limit
	 *	could be raised a bit further if needed; to something just
	 *	under #MDB_PAGESIZE / #MDB_MINKEYS.
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	 *
	 *	Note that data items in an #MDB_DUPSORT database are actually keys
	 *	of a subDB, so they're also limited to this size.
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	 */
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#ifndef MDB_MAXKEYSIZE
#define MDB_MAXKEYSIZE	 511
#endif
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	/**	@brief The maximum size of a data item.
	 *
	 *	We only store a 32 bit value for node sizes.
	 */
#define MAXDATASIZE	0xffffffffUL

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#if MDB_DEBUG
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	/**	A key buffer.
	 *	@ingroup debug
	 *	This is used for printing a hex dump of a key's contents.
	 */
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#define DKBUF	char kbuf[(MDB_MAXKEYSIZE*2+1)]
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	/**	Display a key in hex.
	 *	@ingroup debug
	 *	Invoke a function to display a key in hex.
	 */
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#define	DKEY(x)	mdb_dkey(x, kbuf)
#else
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#define	DKBUF
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#define DKEY(x)	0
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#endif
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	/** An invalid page number.
	 *	Mainly used to denote an empty tree.
	 */
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#define P_INVALID	 (~(pgno_t)0)
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	/** Test if the flags \b f are set in a flag word \b w. */
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#define F_ISSET(w, f)	 (((w) & (f)) == (f))

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	/**	Used for offsets within a single page.
	 *	Since memory pages are typically 4 or 8KB in size, 12-13 bits,
	 *	this is plenty.
	 */
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typedef uint16_t	 indx_t;

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	/**	Default size of memory map.
	 *	This is certainly too small for any actual applications. Apps should always set
	 *	the size explicitly using #mdb_env_set_mapsize().
	 */
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#define DEFAULT_MAPSIZE	1048576

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/**	@defgroup readers	Reader Lock Table
 *	Readers don't acquire any locks for their data access. Instead, they
 *	simply record their transaction ID in the reader table. The reader
 *	mutex is needed just to find an empty slot in the reader table. The
 *	slot's address is saved in thread-specific data so that subsequent read
 *	transactions started by the same thread need no further locking to proceed.
 *
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 *	If #MDB_NOTLS is set, the slot address is not saved in thread-specific data.
 *
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 *	No reader table is used if the database is on a read-only filesystem, or
 *	if #MDB_NOLOCK is set.
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 *
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 *	Since the database uses multi-version concurrency control, readers don't
 *	actually need any locking. This table is used to keep track of which
 *	readers are using data from which old transactions, so that we'll know
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 *	when a particular old transaction is no longer in use. Old transactions
 *	that have discarded any data pages can then have those pages reclaimed
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 *	for use by a later write transaction.
 *
 *	The lock table is constructed such that reader slots are aligned with the
 *	processor's cache line size. Any slot is only ever used by one thread.
 *	This alignment guarantees that there will be no contention or cache
 *	thrashing as threads update their own slot info, and also eliminates
 *	any need for locking when accessing a slot.
 *
 *	A writer thread will scan every slot in the table to determine the oldest
 *	outstanding reader transaction. Any freed pages older than this will be
 *	reclaimed by the writer. The writer doesn't use any locks when scanning
 *	this table. This means that there's no guarantee that the writer will
 *	see the most up-to-date reader info, but that's not required for correct
 *	operation - all we need is to know the upper bound on the oldest reader,
 *	we don't care at all about the newest reader. So the only consequence of
 *	reading stale information here is that old pages might hang around a
 *	while longer before being reclaimed. That's actually good anyway, because
 *	the longer we delay reclaiming old pages, the more likely it is that a
 *	string of contiguous pages can be found after coalescing old pages from
 *	many old transactions together.
 *	@{
 */
	/**	Number of slots in the reader table.
	 *	This value was chosen somewhat arbitrarily. 126 readers plus a
	 *	couple mutexes fit exactly into 8KB on my development machine.
	 *	Applications should set the table size using #mdb_env_set_maxreaders().
	 */
#define DEFAULT_READERS	126

	/**	The size of a CPU cache line in bytes. We want our lock structures
	 *	aligned to this size to avoid false cache line sharing in the
	 *	lock table.
	 *	This value works for most CPUs. For Itanium this should be 128.
	 */
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#ifndef CACHELINE
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#define CACHELINE	64
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#endif

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	/**	The information we store in a single slot of the reader table.
	 *	In addition to a transaction ID, we also record the process and
	 *	thread ID that owns a slot, so that we can detect stale information,
	 *	e.g. threads or processes that went away without cleaning up.
	 *	@note We currently don't check for stale records. We simply re-init
	 *	the table when we know that we're the only process opening the
	 *	lock file.
	 */
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typedef struct MDB_rxbody {
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	/**	Current Transaction ID when this transaction began, or (txnid_t)-1.
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	 *	Multiple readers that start at the same time will probably have the
	 *	same ID here. Again, it's not important to exclude them from
	 *	anything; all we need to know is which version of the DB they
	 *	started from so we can avoid overwriting any data used in that
	 *	particular version.
	 */
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	txnid_t		mrb_txnid;
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	/** The process ID of the process owning this reader txn. */
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	pid_t		mrb_pid;
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	/** The thread ID of the thread owning this txn. */
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	pthread_t	mrb_tid;
} MDB_rxbody;

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	/** The actual reader record, with cacheline padding. */
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typedef struct MDB_reader {
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	union {
		MDB_rxbody mrx;
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		/** shorthand for mrb_txnid */
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#define	mr_txnid	mru.mrx.mrb_txnid
#define	mr_pid	mru.mrx.mrb_pid
#define	mr_tid	mru.mrx.mrb_tid
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		/** cache line alignment */
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		char pad[(sizeof(MDB_rxbody)+CACHELINE-1) & ~(CACHELINE-1)];
	} mru;
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} MDB_reader;

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	/** The header for the reader table.
	 *	The table resides in a memory-mapped file. (This is a different file
	 *	than is used for the main database.)
	 *
	 *	For POSIX the actual mutexes reside in the shared memory of this
	 *	mapped file. On Windows, mutexes are named objects allocated by the
	 *	kernel; we store the mutex names in this mapped file so that other
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	 *	processes can grab them. This same approach is also used on
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	 *	MacOSX/Darwin (using named semaphores) since MacOSX doesn't support
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	 *	process-shared POSIX mutexes. For these cases where a named object
	 *	is used, the object name is derived from a 64 bit FNV hash of the
	 *	environment pathname. As such, naming collisions are extremely
	 *	unlikely. If a collision occurs, the results are unpredictable.
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	 */
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typedef struct MDB_txbody {
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		/** Stamp identifying this as an MDB file. It must be set
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		 *	to #MDB_MAGIC. */
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	uint32_t	mtb_magic;
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		/** Format of this lock file. Must be set to #MDB_LOCK_FORMAT. */
	uint32_t	mtb_format;
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#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(MDB_USE_POSIX_SEM)
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	char	mtb_rmname[MNAME_LEN];
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#else
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		/** Mutex protecting access to this table.
		 *	This is the reader lock that #LOCK_MUTEX_R acquires.
		 */
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	pthread_mutex_t	mtb_mutex;
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#endif
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		/**	The ID of the last transaction committed to the database.
		 *	This is recorded here only for convenience; the value can always
		 *	be determined by reading the main database meta pages.
		 */
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	txnid_t		mtb_txnid;
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		/** The number of slots that have been used in the reader table.
		 *	This always records the maximum count, it is not decremented
		 *	when readers release their slots.
		 */
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	unsigned	mtb_numreaders;
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} MDB_txbody;

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	/** The actual reader table definition. */
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typedef struct MDB_txninfo {
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	union {
		MDB_txbody mtb;
#define mti_magic	mt1.mtb.mtb_magic
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#define mti_format	mt1.mtb.mtb_format
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#define mti_mutex	mt1.mtb.mtb_mutex
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#define mti_rmname	mt1.mtb.mtb_rmname
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#define mti_txnid	mt1.mtb.mtb_txnid
#define mti_numreaders	mt1.mtb.mtb_numreaders
		char pad[(sizeof(MDB_txbody)+CACHELINE-1) & ~(CACHELINE-1)];
	} mt1;
	union {
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#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(MDB_USE_POSIX_SEM)
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		char mt2_wmname[MNAME_LEN];
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#define	mti_wmname	mt2.mt2_wmname
#else
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		pthread_mutex_t	mt2_wmutex;
#define mti_wmutex	mt2.mt2_wmutex
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#endif
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		char pad[(MNAME_LEN+CACHELINE-1) & ~(CACHELINE-1)];
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	} mt2;
	MDB_reader	mti_readers[1];
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} MDB_txninfo;
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	/** Lockfile format signature: version, features and field layout */
#define MDB_LOCK_FORMAT \
	((uint32_t) \
	 ((MDB_LOCK_VERSION) \
	  /* Flags which describe functionality */ \
	  + (((MDB_PIDLOCK) != 0) << 16)))
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/** @} */
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/** Common header for all page types.
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 * Overflow records occupy a number of contiguous pages with no
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 * headers on any page after the first.
 */
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typedef struct MDB_page {
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#define	mp_pgno	mp_p.p_pgno
#define	mp_next	mp_p.p_next
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	union {
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		pgno_t		p_pgno;	/**< page number */
		void *		p_next;	/**< for in-memory list of freed structs */
	} mp_p;
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	uint16_t	mp_pad;
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/**	@defgroup mdb_page	Page Flags
 *	@ingroup internal
 *	Flags for the page headers.
 *	@{
 */
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#define	P_BRANCH	 0x01		/**< branch page */
#define	P_LEAF		 0x02		/**< leaf page */
#define	P_OVERFLOW	 0x04		/**< overflow page */
#define	P_META		 0x08		/**< meta page */
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#define	P_DIRTY		 0x10		/**< dirty page, also set for #P_SUBP pages */
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#define	P_LEAF2		 0x20		/**< for #MDB_DUPFIXED records */
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#define	P_SUBP		 0x40		/**< for #MDB_DUPSORT sub-pages */
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#define	P_KEEP		 0x8000		/**< leave this page alone during spill */
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/** @} */
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	uint16_t	mp_flags;		/**< @ref mdb_page */
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#define mp_lower	mp_pb.pb.pb_lower
#define mp_upper	mp_pb.pb.pb_upper
#define mp_pages	mp_pb.pb_pages
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	union {
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		struct {
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			indx_t		pb_lower;		/**< lower bound of free space */
			indx_t		pb_upper;		/**< upper bound of free space */
		} pb;
		uint32_t	pb_pages;	/**< number of overflow pages */
	} mp_pb;
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	indx_t		mp_ptrs[1];		/**< dynamic size */
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} MDB_page;

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	/** Size of the page header, excluding dynamic data at the end */
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#define PAGEHDRSZ	 ((unsigned) offsetof(MDB_page, mp_ptrs))
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	/** Address of first usable data byte in a page, after the header */
#define METADATA(p)	 ((void *)((char *)(p) + PAGEHDRSZ))

	/** Number of nodes on a page */
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#define NUMKEYS(p)	 (((p)->mp_lower - PAGEHDRSZ) >> 1)
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	/** The amount of space remaining in the page */
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#define SIZELEFT(p)	 (indx_t)((p)->mp_upper - (p)->mp_lower)
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	/** The percentage of space used in the page, in tenths of a percent. */
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#define PAGEFILL(env, p) (1000L * ((env)->me_psize - PAGEHDRSZ - SIZELEFT(p)) / \
				((env)->me_psize - PAGEHDRSZ))
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	/** The minimum page fill factor, in tenths of a percent.
	 *	Pages emptier than this are candidates for merging.
	 */
#define FILL_THRESHOLD	 250

	/** Test if a page is a leaf page */
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#define IS_LEAF(p)	 F_ISSET((p)->mp_flags, P_LEAF)
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	/** Test if a page is a LEAF2 page */
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#define IS_LEAF2(p)	 F_ISSET((p)->mp_flags, P_LEAF2)
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	/** Test if a page is a branch page */
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#define IS_BRANCH(p)	 F_ISSET((p)->mp_flags, P_BRANCH)
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	/** Test if a page is an overflow page */
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#define IS_OVERFLOW(p)	 F_ISSET((p)->mp_flags, P_OVERFLOW)
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	/** Test if a page is a sub page */
#define IS_SUBP(p)	 F_ISSET((p)->mp_flags, P_SUBP)
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	/** The number of overflow pages needed to store the given size. */
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#define OVPAGES(size, psize)	((PAGEHDRSZ-1 + (size)) / (psize) + 1)
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	/** Header for a single key/data pair within a page.
	 * We guarantee 2-byte alignment for nodes.
	 */
typedef struct MDB_node {
	/** lo and hi are used for data size on leaf nodes and for
	 * child pgno on branch nodes. On 64 bit platforms, flags
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	 * is also used for pgno. (Branch nodes have no flags).
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	 * They are in host byte order in case that lets some
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	 * accesses be optimized into a 32-bit word access.
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	 */
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#define mn_lo mn_offset[BYTE_ORDER!=LITTLE_ENDIAN]
#define mn_hi mn_offset[BYTE_ORDER==LITTLE_ENDIAN] /**< part of dsize or pgno */
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	unsigned short	mn_offset[2];	/**< storage for #mn_lo and #mn_hi */
/** @defgroup mdb_node Node Flags
 *	@ingroup internal
 *	Flags for node headers.
 *	@{
 */
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#define F_BIGDATA	 0x01			/**< data put on overflow page */
#define F_SUBDATA	 0x02			/**< data is a sub-database */
#define F_DUPDATA	 0x04			/**< data has duplicates */
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/** valid flags for #mdb_node_add() */
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#define	NODE_ADD_FLAGS	(F_DUPDATA|F_SUBDATA|MDB_RESERVE|MDB_APPEND)
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/** @} */
	unsigned short	mn_flags;		/**< @ref mdb_node */
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	unsigned short	mn_ksize;		/**< key size */
	char		mn_data[1];			/**< key and data are appended here */
} MDB_node;

	/** Size of the node header, excluding dynamic data at the end */
#define NODESIZE	 offsetof(MDB_node, mn_data)

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	/** Bit position of top word in page number, for shifting mn_flags */
#define PGNO_TOPWORD ((pgno_t)-1 > 0xffffffffu ? 32 : 0)

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	/** Size of a node in a branch page with a given key.
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	 *	This is just the node header plus the key, there is no data.
	 */
#define INDXSIZE(k)	 (NODESIZE + ((k) == NULL ? 0 : (k)->mv_size))

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	/** Size of a node in a leaf page with a given key and data.
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	 *	This is node header plus key plus data size.
	 */
#define LEAFSIZE(k, d)	 (NODESIZE + (k)->mv_size + (d)->mv_size)

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	/** Address of node \b i in page \b p */
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#define NODEPTR(p, i)	 ((MDB_node *)((char *)(p) + (p)->mp_ptrs[i]))

	/** Address of the key for the node */
#define NODEKEY(node)	 (void *)((node)->mn_data)

	/** Address of the data for a node */
#define NODEDATA(node)	 (void *)((char *)(node)->mn_data + (node)->mn_ksize)

	/** Get the page number pointed to by a branch node */
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#define NODEPGNO(node) \
	((node)->mn_lo | ((pgno_t) (node)->mn_hi << 16) | \
	 (PGNO_TOPWORD ? ((pgno_t) (node)->mn_flags << PGNO_TOPWORD) : 0))
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	/** Set the page number in a branch node */
#define SETPGNO(node,pgno)	do { \
	(node)->mn_lo = (pgno) & 0xffff; (node)->mn_hi = (pgno) >> 16; \
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	if (PGNO_TOPWORD) (node)->mn_flags = (pgno) >> PGNO_TOPWORD; } while(0)
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	/** Get the size of the data in a leaf node */
#define NODEDSZ(node)	 ((node)->mn_lo | ((unsigned)(node)->mn_hi << 16))
	/** Set the size of the data for a leaf node */
#define SETDSZ(node,size)	do { \
	(node)->mn_lo = (size) & 0xffff; (node)->mn_hi = (size) >> 16;} while(0)
	/** The size of a key in a node */
#define NODEKSZ(node)	 ((node)->mn_ksize)

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	/** Copy a page number from src to dst */
#ifdef MISALIGNED_OK
#define COPY_PGNO(dst,src)	dst = src
#else
#if SIZE_MAX > 4294967295UL
#define COPY_PGNO(dst,src)	do { \
	unsigned short *s, *d;	\
	s = (unsigned short *)&(src);	\
	d = (unsigned short *)&(dst);	\
	*d++ = *s++;	\
	*d++ = *s++;	\
	*d++ = *s++;	\
	*d = *s;	\
} while (0)
#else
#define COPY_PGNO(dst,src)	do { \
	unsigned short *s, *d;	\
	s = (unsigned short *)&(src);	\
	d = (unsigned short *)&(dst);	\
	*d++ = *s++;	\
	*d = *s;	\
} while (0)
#endif
#endif
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	/** The address of a key in a LEAF2 page.
	 *	LEAF2 pages are used for #MDB_DUPFIXED sorted-duplicate sub-DBs.
	 *	There are no node headers, keys are stored contiguously.
	 */
#define LEAF2KEY(p, i, ks)	((char *)(p) + PAGEHDRSZ + ((i)*(ks)))

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	/** Set the \b node's key into \b keyptr, if requested. */
#define MDB_GET_KEY(node, keyptr)	{ if ((keyptr) != NULL) { \
	(keyptr)->mv_size = NODEKSZ(node); (keyptr)->mv_data = NODEKEY(node); } }

	/** Set the \b node's key into \b key. */
#define MDB_GET_KEY2(node, key)	{ key.mv_size = NODEKSZ(node); key.mv_data = NODEKEY(node); }
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	/** Information about a single database in the environment. */
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typedef struct MDB_db {
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	uint32_t	md_pad;		/**< also ksize for LEAF2 pages */
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	uint16_t	md_flags;	/**< @ref mdb_dbi_open */
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	uint16_t	md_depth;	/**< depth of this tree */
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	pgno_t		md_branch_pages;	/**< number of internal pages */
	pgno_t		md_leaf_pages;		/**< number of leaf pages */
	pgno_t		md_overflow_pages;	/**< number of overflow pages */
	size_t		md_entries;		/**< number of data items */
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	pgno_t		md_root;		/**< the root page of this tree */
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} MDB_db;

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	/** mdb_dbi_open flags */
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#define MDB_VALID	0x8000		/**< DB handle is valid, for me_dbflags */
#define PERSISTENT_FLAGS	(0xffff & ~(MDB_VALID))
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#define VALID_FLAGS	(MDB_REVERSEKEY|MDB_DUPSORT|MDB_INTEGERKEY|MDB_DUPFIXED|\
	MDB_INTEGERDUP|MDB_REVERSEDUP|MDB_CREATE)

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	/** Handle for the DB used to track free pages. */
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#define	FREE_DBI	0
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	/** Handle for the default DB. */
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#define	MAIN_DBI	1

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	/** Meta page content.
	 *	A meta page is the start point for accessing a database snapshot.
	 *	Pages 0-1 are meta pages. Transaction N writes meta page #(N % 2).
	 */
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typedef struct MDB_meta {
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		/** Stamp identifying this as an MDB file. It must be set
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		 *	to #MDB_MAGIC. */
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	uint32_t	mm_magic;
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		/** Version number of this lock file. Must be set to #MDB_DATA_VERSION. */
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	uint32_t	mm_version;
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	void		*mm_address;		/**< address for fixed mapping */
	size_t		mm_mapsize;			/**< size of mmap region */
	MDB_db		mm_dbs[2];			/**< first is free space, 2nd is main db */
	/** The size of pages used in this DB */
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#define	mm_psize	mm_dbs[0].md_pad
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	/** Any persistent environment flags. @ref mdb_env */
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#define	mm_flags	mm_dbs[0].md_flags
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	pgno_t		mm_last_pg;			/**< last used page in file */
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	txnid_t		mm_txnid;			/**< txnid that committed this page */
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} MDB_meta;

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	/** Buffer for a stack-allocated dirty page.
	 *	The members define size and alignment, and silence type
	 *	aliasing warnings.  They are not used directly; that could
	 *	mean incorrectly using several union members in parallel.
	 */
typedef union MDB_pagebuf {
	char		mb_raw[MDB_PAGESIZE];
	MDB_page	mb_page;
	struct {
		char		mm_pad[PAGEHDRSZ];
		MDB_meta	mm_meta;
	} mb_metabuf;
} MDB_pagebuf;

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	/** Auxiliary DB info.
	 *	The information here is mostly static/read-only. There is
	 *	only a single copy of this record in the environment.
	 */
typedef struct MDB_dbx {
	MDB_val		md_name;		/**< name of the database */
	MDB_cmp_func	*md_cmp;	/**< function for comparing keys */
	MDB_cmp_func	*md_dcmp;	/**< function for comparing data items */
	MDB_rel_func	*md_rel;	/**< user relocate function */
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	void		*md_relctx;		/**< user-provided context for md_rel */
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} MDB_dbx;
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	/** A database transaction.
	 *	Every operation requires a transaction handle.
	 */
struct MDB_txn {
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	MDB_txn		*mt_parent;		/**< parent of a nested txn */
	MDB_txn		*mt_child;		/**< nested txn under this txn */
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	pgno_t		mt_next_pgno;	/**< next unallocated page */
	/** The ID of this transaction. IDs are integers incrementing from 1.
	 *	Only committed write transactions increment the ID. If a transaction
	 *	aborts, the ID may be re-used by the next writer.
	 */
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	txnid_t		mt_txnid;
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	MDB_env		*mt_env;		/**< the DB environment */
	/** The list of pages that became unused during this transaction.
	 */
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	MDB_IDL		mt_free_pgs;
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	/** The sorted list of dirty pages we temporarily wrote to disk
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	 *	because the dirty list was full. page numbers in here are
	 *	shifted left by 1, deleted slots have the LSB set.
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	 */
	MDB_IDL		mt_spill_pgs;
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	union {
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		/** For write txns: Modified pages. Sorted when not MDB_WRITEMAP. */
		MDB_ID2L	dirty_list;
		/** For read txns: This thread/txn's reader table slot, or NULL. */
		MDB_reader	*reader;
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	} mt_u;
	/** Array of records for each DB known in the environment. */
	MDB_dbx		*mt_dbxs;
	/** Array of MDB_db records for each known DB */
	MDB_db		*mt_dbs;
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/** @defgroup mt_dbflag	Transaction DB Flags
 *	@ingroup internal
 * @{
 */
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#define DB_DIRTY	0x01		/**< DB was modified or is DUPSORT data */
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#define DB_STALE	0x02		/**< Named-DB record is older than txnID */
#define DB_NEW		0x04		/**< Named-DB handle opened in this txn */
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#define DB_VALID	0x08		/**< DB handle is valid, see also #MDB_VALID */
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/** @} */
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	/** In write txns, array of cursors for each DB */
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	MDB_cursor	**mt_cursors;
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	/** Array of flags for each DB */
	unsigned char	*mt_dbflags;
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	/**	Number of DB records in use. This number only ever increments;
	 *	we don't decrement it when individual DB handles are closed.
	 */
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	MDB_dbi		mt_numdbs;
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/** @defgroup mdb_txn	Transaction Flags
 *	@ingroup internal
 *	@{
 */
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#define MDB_TXN_RDONLY		0x01		/**< read-only transaction */
#define MDB_TXN_ERROR		0x02		/**< an error has occurred */
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#define MDB_TXN_DIRTY		0x04		/**< must write, even if dirty list is empty */
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#define MDB_TXN_SPILLS		0x08		/**< txn or a parent has spilled pages */
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/** @} */
	unsigned int	mt_flags;		/**< @ref mdb_txn */
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	/** dirty_list room: Array size - #dirty pages visible to this txn.
	 *	Includes ancestor txns' dirty pages not hidden by other txns'
	 *	dirty/spilled pages. Thus commit(nested txn) has room to merge
	 *	dirty_list into mt_parent after freeing hidden mt_parent pages.
	 */
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	unsigned int	mt_dirty_room;
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};
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/** Enough space for 2^32 nodes with minimum of 2 keys per node. I.e., plenty.
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 * At 4 keys per node, enough for 2^64 nodes, so there's probably no need to
 * raise this on a 64 bit machine.
 */
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#define CURSOR_STACK		 32
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struct MDB_xcursor;
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	/** Cursors are used for all DB operations.
	 *	A cursor holds a path of (page pointer, key index) from the DB
	 *	root to a position in the DB, plus other state. #MDB_DUPSORT
	 *	cursors include an xcursor to the current data item. Write txns
	 *	track their cursors and keep them up to date when data moves.
	 *	Exception: An xcursor's pointer to a #P_SUBP page can be stale.
	 *	(A node with #F_DUPDATA but no #F_SUBDATA contains a subpage).
	 */
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struct MDB_cursor {
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	/** Next cursor on this DB in this txn */
	MDB_cursor	*mc_next;
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	/** Backup of the original cursor if this cursor is a shadow */
	MDB_cursor	*mc_backup;
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	/** Context used for databases with #MDB_DUPSORT, otherwise NULL */
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	struct MDB_xcursor	*mc_xcursor;
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	/** The transaction that owns this cursor */
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	MDB_txn		*mc_txn;
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	/** The database handle this cursor operates on */
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	MDB_dbi		mc_dbi;
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	/** The database record for this cursor */
	MDB_db		*mc_db;
	/** The database auxiliary record for this cursor */
	MDB_dbx		*mc_dbx;
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	/** The @ref mt_dbflag for this database */
	unsigned char	*mc_dbflag;
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	unsigned short 	mc_snum;	/**< number of pushed pages */
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	unsigned short	mc_top;		/**< index of top page, normally mc_snum-1 */
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/** @defgroup mdb_cursor	Cursor Flags
 *	@ingroup internal
 *	Cursor state flags.
 *	@{
 */
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#define C_INITIALIZED	0x01	/**< cursor has been initialized and is valid */
#define C_EOF	0x02			/**< No more data */
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#define C_SUB	0x04			/**< Cursor is a sub-cursor */
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#define C_DEL	0x08			/**< last op was a cursor_del */
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#define C_SPLITTING	0x20		/**< Cursor is in page_split */
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#define C_UNTRACK	0x40		/**< Un-track cursor when closing */
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/** @} */
	unsigned int	mc_flags;	/**< @ref mdb_cursor */
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	MDB_page	*mc_pg[CURSOR_STACK];	/**< stack of pushed pages */
	indx_t		mc_ki[CURSOR_STACK];	/**< stack of page indices */
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};

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	/** Context for sorted-dup records.
	 *	We could have gone to a fully recursive design, with arbitrarily
	 *	deep nesting of sub-databases. But for now we only handle these
	 *	levels - main DB, optional sub-DB, sorted-duplicate DB.
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	 */
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typedef struct MDB_xcursor {
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	/** A sub-cursor for traversing the Dup DB */
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	MDB_cursor mx_cursor;
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	/** The database record for this Dup DB */
	MDB_db	mx_db;
	/**	The auxiliary DB record for this Dup DB */
	MDB_dbx	mx_dbx;
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	/** The @ref mt_dbflag for this Dup DB */
	unsigned char mx_dbflag;
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} MDB_xcursor;

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	/** State of FreeDB old pages, stored in the MDB_env */
typedef struct MDB_pgstate {
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	pgno_t		*mf_pghead;	/**< Reclaimed freeDB pages, or NULL before use */
	txnid_t		mf_pglast;	/**< ID of last used record, or 0 if !mf_pghead */
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} MDB_pgstate;

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	/** The database environment. */
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struct MDB_env {
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	HANDLE		me_fd;		/**< The main data file */
	HANDLE		me_lfd;		/**< The lock file */
	HANDLE		me_mfd;			/**< just for writing the meta pages */
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	/** Failed to update the meta page. Probably an I/O error. */
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#define	MDB_FATAL_ERROR	0x80000000U
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	/** Some fields are initialized. */
#define	MDB_ENV_ACTIVE	0x20000000U
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	/** me_txkey is set */
#define	MDB_ENV_TXKEY	0x10000000U
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	/** Have liveness lock in reader table */
#define	MDB_LIVE_READER	0x08000000U
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	uint32_t 	me_flags;		/**< @ref mdb_env */
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	unsigned int	me_psize;	/**< size of a page, from #GET_PAGESIZE */
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	unsigned int	me_maxreaders;	/**< size of the reader table */
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	unsigned int	me_numreaders;	/**< max numreaders set by this env */
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	MDB_dbi		me_numdbs;		/**< number of DBs opened */
	MDB_dbi		me_maxdbs;		/**< size of the DB table */
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	pid_t		me_pid;		/**< process ID of this env */
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	char		*me_path;		/**< path to the DB files */
	char		*me_map;		/**< the memory map of the data file */
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	MDB_txninfo	*me_txns;		/**< the memory map of the lock file or NULL */
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	MDB_meta	*me_metas[2];	/**< pointers to the two meta pages */
	MDB_txn		*me_txn;		/**< current write transaction */
	size_t		me_mapsize;		/**< size of the data memory map */
	off_t		me_size;		/**< current file size */
	pgno_t		me_maxpg;		/**< me_mapsize / me_psize */
	MDB_dbx		*me_dbxs;		/**< array of static DB info */
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	uint16_t	*me_dbflags;	/**< array of flags from MDB_db.md_flags */
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	pthread_key_t	me_txkey;	/**< thread-key for readers */
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	MDB_pgstate	me_pgstate;		/**< state of old pages from freeDB */
#	define		me_pglast	me_pgstate.mf_pglast
#	define		me_pghead	me_pgstate.mf_pghead
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	MDB_page	*me_dpages;		/**< list of malloc'd blocks for re-use */
	/** IDL of pages that became unused in a write txn */
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	MDB_IDL		me_free_pgs;
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	/** ID2L of pages written during a write txn. Length MDB_IDL_UM_SIZE. */
	MDB_ID2L	me_dirty_list;
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	/** Max number of freelist items that can fit in a single overflow page */
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	int			me_maxfree_1pg;
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	/** Max size of a node on a page */
	unsigned int	me_nodemax;
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#ifdef _WIN32
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	int		me_pidquery;		/**< Used in OpenProcess */
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	HANDLE		me_rmutex;		/* Windows mutexes don't reside in shared mem */
	HANDLE		me_wmutex;
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#elif defined(MDB_USE_POSIX_SEM)
	sem_t		*me_rmutex;		/* Shared mutexes are not supported */
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	sem_t		*me_wmutex;
#endif
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};
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	/** Nested transaction */
typedef struct MDB_ntxn {
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	MDB_txn		mnt_txn;		/**< the transaction */
	MDB_pgstate	mnt_pgstate;	/**< parent transaction's saved freestate */
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} MDB_ntxn;

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	/** max number of pages to commit in one writev() call */
#define MDB_COMMIT_PAGES	 64
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#if defined(IOV_MAX) && IOV_MAX < MDB_COMMIT_PAGES
#undef MDB_COMMIT_PAGES
#define MDB_COMMIT_PAGES	IOV_MAX
#endif
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	/* max bytes to write in one call */
#define MAX_WRITE		(0x80000000U >> (sizeof(ssize_t) == 4))

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static int  mdb_page_alloc(MDB_cursor *mc, int num, MDB_page **mp);
static int  mdb_page_new(MDB_cursor *mc, uint32_t flags, int num, MDB_page **mp);
static int  mdb_page_touch(MDB_cursor *mc);
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static int  mdb_page_get(MDB_txn *txn, pgno_t pgno, MDB_page **mp, int *lvl);
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static int  mdb_page_search_root(MDB_cursor *mc,
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			    MDB_val *key, int modify);
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#define MDB_PS_MODIFY	1
#define MDB_PS_ROOTONLY	2
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#define MDB_PS_FIRST	4
#define MDB_PS_LAST		8
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static int  mdb_page_search(MDB_cursor *mc,
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			    MDB_val *key, int flags);
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static int	mdb_page_merge(MDB_cursor *csrc, MDB_cursor *cdst);
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#define MDB_SPLIT_REPLACE	MDB_APPENDDUP	/**< newkey is not new */
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static int	mdb_page_split(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_val *newkey, MDB_val *newdata,
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				pgno_t newpgno, unsigned int nflags);
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static int  mdb_env_read_header(MDB_env *env, MDB_meta *meta);
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static int  mdb_env_pick_meta(const MDB_env *env);
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static int  mdb_env_write_meta(MDB_txn *txn);
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#if !(defined(_WIN32) || defined(MDB_USE_POSIX_SEM)) /* Drop unused excl arg */
# define mdb_env_close0(env, excl) mdb_env_close1(env)
#endif
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static void mdb_env_close0(MDB_env *env, int excl);
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static MDB_node *mdb_node_search(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_val *key, int *exactp);
static int  mdb_node_add(MDB_cursor *mc, indx_t indx,
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			    MDB_val *key, MDB_val *data, pgno_t pgno, unsigned int flags);
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static void mdb_node_del(MDB_page *mp, indx_t indx, int ksize);