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/** @file mdb.c
 *	@brief memory-mapped database library
 *
 *	A Btree-based database management library modeled loosely on the
 *	BerkeleyDB API, but much simplified.
 */
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/*
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 * Copyright 2011-2012 Howard Chu, Symas Corp.
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 * All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted only as authorized by the OpenLDAP
 * Public License.
 *
 * A copy of this license is available in the file LICENSE in the
 * top-level directory of the distribution or, alternatively, at
 * <http://www.OpenLDAP.org/license.html>.
 *
 * This code is derived from btree.c written by Martin Hedenfalk.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2009, 2010 Martin Hedenfalk <martin@bzero.se>
 *
 * Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
 * purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
 * copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
 *
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES
 * WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
 * MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR
 * ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
 * WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN
 * ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF
 * OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
 */
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#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/param.h>
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#ifdef _WIN32
#include <windows.h>
#else
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#include <sys/uio.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_FILE_H
#include <sys/file.h>
#endif
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#include <fcntl.h>
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#endif
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#include <assert.h>
#include <errno.h>
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#include <limits.h>
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#include <stddef.h>
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#include <inttypes.h>
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#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <unistd.h>
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#ifndef _WIN32
#include <pthread.h>
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#ifdef __APPLE__
#include <semaphore.h>
#endif
#endif

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#ifdef USE_VALGRIND
#include <valgrind/memcheck.h>
#define VGMEMP_CREATE(h,r,z)    VALGRIND_CREATE_MEMPOOL(h,r,z)
#define VGMEMP_ALLOC(h,a,s) VALGRIND_MEMPOOL_ALLOC(h,a,s)
#define VGMEMP_FREE(h,a) VALGRIND_MEMPOOL_FREE(h,a)
#define VGMEMP_DESTROY(h)	VALGRIND_DESTROY_MEMPOOL(h)
#define VGMEMP_DEFINED(a,s)	VALGRIND_MAKE_MEM_DEFINED(a,s)
#else
#define VGMEMP_CREATE(h,r,z)
#define VGMEMP_ALLOC(h,a,s)
#define VGMEMP_FREE(h,a)
#define VGMEMP_DESTROY(h)
#define VGMEMP_DEFINED(a,s)
#endif

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#ifndef BYTE_ORDER
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# if (defined(_LITTLE_ENDIAN) || defined(_BIG_ENDIAN)) && !(defined(_LITTLE_ENDIAN) && defined(_BIG_ENDIAN))
/* Solaris just defines one or the other */
#  define LITTLE_ENDIAN	1234
#  define BIG_ENDIAN	4321
#  ifdef _LITTLE_ENDIAN
#   define BYTE_ORDER  LITTLE_ENDIAN
#  else
#   define BYTE_ORDER  BIG_ENDIAN
#  endif
# else
#  define BYTE_ORDER   __BYTE_ORDER
# endif
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#endif
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#ifndef LITTLE_ENDIAN
#define LITTLE_ENDIAN	__LITTLE_ENDIAN
#endif
#ifndef BIG_ENDIAN
#define BIG_ENDIAN	__BIG_ENDIAN
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#endif

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#if defined(__i386) || defined(__x86_64)
#define MISALIGNED_OK	1
#endif

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#include "mdb.h"
#include "midl.h"

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#if (BYTE_ORDER == LITTLE_ENDIAN) == (BYTE_ORDER == BIG_ENDIAN)
# error "Unknown or unsupported endianness (BYTE_ORDER)"
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#elif (-6 & 5) || CHAR_BIT != 8 || UINT_MAX < 0xffffffff || ULONG_MAX % 0xFFFF
# error "Two's complement, reasonably sized integer types, please"
#endif

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/** @defgroup internal	MDB Internals
 *	@{
 */
/** @defgroup compat	Windows Compatibility Macros
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 *	A bunch of macros to minimize the amount of platform-specific ifdefs
 *	needed throughout the rest of the code. When the features this library
 *	needs are similar enough to POSIX to be hidden in a one-or-two line
 *	replacement, this macro approach is used.
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 *	@{
 */
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#ifdef _WIN32
#define pthread_t	DWORD
#define pthread_mutex_t	HANDLE
#define pthread_key_t	DWORD
#define pthread_self()	GetCurrentThreadId()
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#define pthread_key_create(x,y)	(*(x) = TlsAlloc())
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#define pthread_key_delete(x)	TlsFree(x)
#define pthread_getspecific(x)	TlsGetValue(x)
#define pthread_setspecific(x,y)	TlsSetValue(x,y)
#define pthread_mutex_unlock(x)	ReleaseMutex(x)
#define pthread_mutex_lock(x)	WaitForSingleObject(x, INFINITE)
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#define LOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	pthread_mutex_lock((env)->me_rmutex)
#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	pthread_mutex_unlock((env)->me_rmutex)
#define LOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	pthread_mutex_lock((env)->me_wmutex)
#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	pthread_mutex_unlock((env)->me_wmutex)
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#define getpid()	GetCurrentProcessId()
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#define	fdatasync(fd)	(!FlushFileBuffers(fd))
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#define	ErrCode()	GetLastError()
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#define GET_PAGESIZE(x) {SYSTEM_INFO si; GetSystemInfo(&si); (x) = si.dwPageSize;}
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#define	close(fd)	CloseHandle(fd)
#define	munmap(ptr,len)	UnmapViewOfFile(ptr)
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#else
#ifdef __APPLE__
#define LOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	sem_wait((env)->me_rmutex)
#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	sem_post((env)->me_rmutex)
#define LOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	sem_wait((env)->me_wmutex)
#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	sem_post((env)->me_wmutex)
#define fdatasync(fd)	fsync(fd)
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#else
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#ifdef ANDROID
#define fdatasync(fd)	fsync(fd)
#endif
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	/** Lock the reader mutex.
	 */
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#define LOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	pthread_mutex_lock(&(env)->me_txns->mti_mutex)
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	/** Unlock the reader mutex.
	 */
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#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_R(env)	pthread_mutex_unlock(&(env)->me_txns->mti_mutex)
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	/** Lock the writer mutex.
	 *	Only a single write transaction is allowed at a time. Other writers
	 *	will block waiting for this mutex.
	 */
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#define LOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	pthread_mutex_lock(&(env)->me_txns->mti_wmutex)
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	/** Unlock the writer mutex.
	 */
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#define UNLOCK_MUTEX_W(env)	pthread_mutex_unlock(&(env)->me_txns->mti_wmutex)
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#endif	/* __APPLE__ */
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	/** Get the error code for the last failed system function.
	 */
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#define	ErrCode()	errno
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	/** An abstraction for a file handle.
	 *	On POSIX systems file handles are small integers. On Windows
	 *	they're opaque pointers.
	 */
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#define	HANDLE	int
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	/**	A value for an invalid file handle.
	 *	Mainly used to initialize file variables and signify that they are
	 *	unused.
	 */
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#define INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE	(-1)
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	/** Get the size of a memory page for the system.
	 *	This is the basic size that the platform's memory manager uses, and is
	 *	fundamental to the use of memory-mapped files.
	 */
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#define	GET_PAGESIZE(x)	((x) = sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE))
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#endif
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#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(__APPLE__)
#define MNAME_LEN	32
#endif

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/** @} */
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#ifndef _WIN32
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/**	A flag for opening a file and requesting synchronous data writes.
 *	This is only used when writing a meta page. It's not strictly needed;
 *	we could just do a normal write and then immediately perform a flush.
 *	But if this flag is available it saves us an extra system call.
 *
 *	@note If O_DSYNC is undefined but exists in /usr/include,
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 * preferably set some compiler flag to get the definition.
 * Otherwise compile with the less efficient -DMDB_DSYNC=O_SYNC.
 */
#ifndef MDB_DSYNC
# define MDB_DSYNC	O_DSYNC
#endif
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#endif

/** Function for flushing the data of a file. Define this to fsync
 *	if fdatasync() is not supported.
 */
#ifndef MDB_FDATASYNC
# define MDB_FDATASYNC	fdatasync
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#endif

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	/** A page number in the database.
	 *	Note that 64 bit page numbers are overkill, since pages themselves
	 *	already represent 12-13 bits of addressable memory, and the OS will
	 *	always limit applications to a maximum of 63 bits of address space.
	 *
	 *	@note In the #MDB_node structure, we only store 48 bits of this value,
	 *	which thus limits us to only 60 bits of addressable data.
	 */
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typedef ID	pgno_t;
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	/** A transaction ID.
	 *	See struct MDB_txn.mt_txnid for details.
	 */
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typedef ID	txnid_t;
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/** @defgroup debug	Debug Macros
 *	@{
 */
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#ifndef MDB_DEBUG
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	/**	Enable debug output.
	 *	Set this to 1 for copious tracing. Set to 2 to add dumps of all IDLs
	 *	read from and written to the database (used for free space management).
	 */
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#define MDB_DEBUG 0
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#endif
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#if !(__STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L || defined(__GNUC__))
# define DPRINTF	(void)	/* Vararg macros may be unsupported */
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#elif MDB_DEBUG
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	/**	Print a debug message with printf formatting. */
# define DPRINTF(fmt, ...)	/**< Requires 2 or more args */ \
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	fprintf(stderr, "%s:%d " fmt "\n", __func__, __LINE__, __VA_ARGS__)
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#else
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# define DPRINTF(fmt, ...)	((void) 0)
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#endif
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	/**	Print a debug string.
	 *	The string is printed literally, with no format processing.
	 */
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#define DPUTS(arg)	DPRINTF("%s", arg)
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/** @} */
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	/** A default memory page size.
	 *	The actual size is platform-dependent, but we use this for
	 *	boot-strapping. We probably should not be using this any more.
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	 *	The #GET_PAGESIZE() macro is used to get the actual size.
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	 *
	 *	Note that we don't currently support Huge pages. On Linux,
	 *	regular data files cannot use Huge pages, and in general
	 *	Huge pages aren't actually pageable. We rely on the OS
	 *	demand-pager to read our data and page it out when memory
	 *	pressure from other processes is high. So until OSs have
	 *	actual paging support for Huge pages, they're not viable.
	 */
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#define MDB_PAGESIZE	 4096
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	/** The minimum number of keys required in a database page.
	 *	Setting this to a larger value will place a smaller bound on the
	 *	maximum size of a data item. Data items larger than this size will
	 *	be pushed into overflow pages instead of being stored directly in
	 *	the B-tree node. This value used to default to 4. With a page size
	 *	of 4096 bytes that meant that any item larger than 1024 bytes would
	 *	go into an overflow page. That also meant that on average 2-3KB of
	 *	each overflow page was wasted space. The value cannot be lower than
	 *	2 because then there would no longer be a tree structure. With this
	 *	value, items larger than 2KB will go into overflow pages, and on
	 *	average only 1KB will be wasted.
	 */
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#define MDB_MINKEYS	 2
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	/**	A stamp that identifies a file as an MDB file.
	 *	There's nothing special about this value other than that it is easily
	 *	recognizable, and it will reflect any byte order mismatches.
	 */
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#define MDB_MAGIC	 0xBEEFC0DE
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	/**	The version number for a database's file format. */
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#define MDB_VERSION	 1
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	/**	The maximum size of a key in the database.
	 *	While data items have essentially unbounded size, we require that
	 *	keys all fit onto a regular page. This limit could be raised a bit
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	 *	further if needed; to something just under #MDB_PAGESIZE / #MDB_MINKEYS.
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	 */
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#define MAXKEYSIZE	 511
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#if MDB_DEBUG
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	/**	A key buffer.
	 *	@ingroup debug
	 *	This is used for printing a hex dump of a key's contents.
	 */
#define DKBUF	char kbuf[(MAXKEYSIZE*2+1)]
	/**	Display a key in hex.
	 *	@ingroup debug
	 *	Invoke a function to display a key in hex.
	 */
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#define	DKEY(x)	mdb_dkey(x, kbuf)
#else
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#define	DKBUF	typedef int dummy_kbuf	/* so we can put ';' after */
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#define DKEY(x)	0
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#endif
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/**	@defgroup lazylock	Lazy Locking
 *	Macros for locks that are't actually needed.
 *	The DB view is always consistent because all writes are wrapped in
 *	the wmutex. Finer-grained locks aren't necessary.
 *	@{
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 */
#ifndef	LAZY_LOCKS
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	/**	Use lazy locking. I.e., don't lock these accesses at all. */
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#define	LAZY_LOCKS	1
#endif
#if	LAZY_LOCKS
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	/** Grab the reader lock */
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#define	LAZY_MUTEX_LOCK(x)
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	/** Release the reader lock */
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#define	LAZY_MUTEX_UNLOCK(x)
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	/** Release the DB table reader/writer lock */
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#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_UNLOCK(x)
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	/** Grab the DB table write lock */
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#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_WRLOCK(x)
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	/** Grab the DB table read lock */
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#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_RDLOCK(x)
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	/** Declare the DB table rwlock.  Should not be followed by ';'. */
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#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_DEF(x)
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	/** Initialize the DB table rwlock */
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#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_INIT(x,y)
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	/**	Destroy the DB table rwlock */
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#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_DESTROY(x)
#else
#define	LAZY_MUTEX_LOCK(x)		pthread_mutex_lock(x)
#define	LAZY_MUTEX_UNLOCK(x)	pthread_mutex_unlock(x)
#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_UNLOCK(x)	pthread_rwlock_unlock(x)
#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_WRLOCK(x)	pthread_rwlock_wrlock(x)
#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_RDLOCK(x)	pthread_rwlock_rdlock(x)
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#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_DEF(x)		pthread_rwlock_t	x;
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#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_INIT(x,y)	pthread_rwlock_init(x,y)
#define	LAZY_RWLOCK_DESTROY(x)	pthread_rwlock_destroy(x)
#endif
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/** @} */
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	/** An invalid page number.
	 *	Mainly used to denote an empty tree.
	 */
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#define P_INVALID	 (~0UL)
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	/** Test if a flag \b f is set in a flag word \b w. */
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#define F_ISSET(w, f)	 (((w) & (f)) == (f))

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	/**	Used for offsets within a single page.
	 *	Since memory pages are typically 4 or 8KB in size, 12-13 bits,
	 *	this is plenty.
	 */
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typedef uint16_t	 indx_t;

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	/**	Default size of memory map.
	 *	This is certainly too small for any actual applications. Apps should always set
	 *	the size explicitly using #mdb_env_set_mapsize().
	 */
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#define DEFAULT_MAPSIZE	1048576

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/**	@defgroup readers	Reader Lock Table
 *	Readers don't acquire any locks for their data access. Instead, they
 *	simply record their transaction ID in the reader table. The reader
 *	mutex is needed just to find an empty slot in the reader table. The
 *	slot's address is saved in thread-specific data so that subsequent read
 *	transactions started by the same thread need no further locking to proceed.
 *
 *	Since the database uses multi-version concurrency control, readers don't
 *	actually need any locking. This table is used to keep track of which
 *	readers are using data from which old transactions, so that we'll know
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 *	when a particular old transaction is no longer in use. Old transactions
 *	that have discarded any data pages can then have those pages reclaimed
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 *	for use by a later write transaction.
 *
 *	The lock table is constructed such that reader slots are aligned with the
 *	processor's cache line size. Any slot is only ever used by one thread.
 *	This alignment guarantees that there will be no contention or cache
 *	thrashing as threads update their own slot info, and also eliminates
 *	any need for locking when accessing a slot.
 *
 *	A writer thread will scan every slot in the table to determine the oldest
 *	outstanding reader transaction. Any freed pages older than this will be
 *	reclaimed by the writer. The writer doesn't use any locks when scanning
 *	this table. This means that there's no guarantee that the writer will
 *	see the most up-to-date reader info, but that's not required for correct
 *	operation - all we need is to know the upper bound on the oldest reader,
 *	we don't care at all about the newest reader. So the only consequence of
 *	reading stale information here is that old pages might hang around a
 *	while longer before being reclaimed. That's actually good anyway, because
 *	the longer we delay reclaiming old pages, the more likely it is that a
 *	string of contiguous pages can be found after coalescing old pages from
 *	many old transactions together.
 *
 *	@todo We don't actually do such coalescing yet, we grab pages from one
 *	old transaction at a time.
 *	@{
 */
	/**	Number of slots in the reader table.
	 *	This value was chosen somewhat arbitrarily. 126 readers plus a
	 *	couple mutexes fit exactly into 8KB on my development machine.
	 *	Applications should set the table size using #mdb_env_set_maxreaders().
	 */
#define DEFAULT_READERS	126

	/**	The size of a CPU cache line in bytes. We want our lock structures
	 *	aligned to this size to avoid false cache line sharing in the
	 *	lock table.
	 *	This value works for most CPUs. For Itanium this should be 128.
	 */
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#ifndef CACHELINE
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#define CACHELINE	64
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#endif

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	/**	The information we store in a single slot of the reader table.
	 *	In addition to a transaction ID, we also record the process and
	 *	thread ID that owns a slot, so that we can detect stale information,
	 *	e.g. threads or processes that went away without cleaning up.
	 *	@note We currently don't check for stale records. We simply re-init
	 *	the table when we know that we're the only process opening the
	 *	lock file.
	 */
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typedef struct MDB_rxbody {
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	/**	The current Transaction ID when this transaction began.
	 *	Multiple readers that start at the same time will probably have the
	 *	same ID here. Again, it's not important to exclude them from
	 *	anything; all we need to know is which version of the DB they
	 *	started from so we can avoid overwriting any data used in that
	 *	particular version.
	 */
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	txnid_t		mrb_txnid;
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	/** The process ID of the process owning this reader txn. */
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	pid_t		mrb_pid;
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	/** The thread ID of the thread owning this txn. */
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	pthread_t	mrb_tid;
} MDB_rxbody;

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	/** The actual reader record, with cacheline padding. */
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typedef struct MDB_reader {
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	union {
		MDB_rxbody mrx;
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		/** shorthand for mrb_txnid */
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#define	mr_txnid	mru.mrx.mrb_txnid
#define	mr_pid	mru.mrx.mrb_pid
#define	mr_tid	mru.mrx.mrb_tid
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		/** cache line alignment */
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		char pad[(sizeof(MDB_rxbody)+CACHELINE-1) & ~(CACHELINE-1)];
	} mru;
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} MDB_reader;

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	/** The header for the reader table.
	 *	The table resides in a memory-mapped file. (This is a different file
	 *	than is used for the main database.)
	 *
	 *	For POSIX the actual mutexes reside in the shared memory of this
	 *	mapped file. On Windows, mutexes are named objects allocated by the
	 *	kernel; we store the mutex names in this mapped file so that other
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	 *	processes can grab them. This same approach is also used on
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	 *	MacOSX/Darwin (using named semaphores) since MacOSX doesn't support
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	 *	process-shared POSIX mutexes. For these cases where a named object
	 *	is used, the object name is derived from a 64 bit FNV hash of the
	 *	environment pathname. As such, naming collisions are extremely
	 *	unlikely. If a collision occurs, the results are unpredictable.
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	 */
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typedef struct MDB_txbody {
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		/** Stamp identifying this as an MDB lock file. It must be set
		 *	to #MDB_MAGIC. */
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	uint32_t	mtb_magic;
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		/** Version number of this lock file. Must be set to #MDB_VERSION. */
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	uint32_t	mtb_version;
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#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(__APPLE__)
	char	mtb_rmname[MNAME_LEN];
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#else
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		/** Mutex protecting access to this table.
		 *	This is the reader lock that #LOCK_MUTEX_R acquires.
		 */
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	pthread_mutex_t	mtb_mutex;
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#endif
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		/**	The ID of the last transaction committed to the database.
		 *	This is recorded here only for convenience; the value can always
		 *	be determined by reading the main database meta pages.
		 */
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	txnid_t		mtb_txnid;
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		/** The number of slots that have been used in the reader table.
		 *	This always records the maximum count, it is not decremented
		 *	when readers release their slots.
		 */
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	unsigned	mtb_numreaders;
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		/**	The ID of the most recent meta page in the database.
		 *	This is recorded here only for convenience; the value can always
		 *	be determined by reading the main database meta pages.
		 */
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	uint32_t	mtb_me_toggle;
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} MDB_txbody;

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	/** The actual reader table definition. */
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typedef struct MDB_txninfo {
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	union {
		MDB_txbody mtb;
#define mti_magic	mt1.mtb.mtb_magic
#define mti_version	mt1.mtb.mtb_version
#define mti_mutex	mt1.mtb.mtb_mutex
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#define mti_rmname	mt1.mtb.mtb_rmname
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#define mti_txnid	mt1.mtb.mtb_txnid
#define mti_numreaders	mt1.mtb.mtb_numreaders
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#define mti_me_toggle	mt1.mtb.mtb_me_toggle
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		char pad[(sizeof(MDB_txbody)+CACHELINE-1) & ~(CACHELINE-1)];
	} mt1;
	union {
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#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(__APPLE__)
		char mt2_wmname[MNAME_LEN];
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#define	mti_wmname	mt2.mt2_wmname
#else
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		pthread_mutex_t	mt2_wmutex;
#define mti_wmutex	mt2.mt2_wmutex
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#endif
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		char pad[(sizeof(pthread_mutex_t)+CACHELINE-1) & ~(CACHELINE-1)];
	} mt2;
	MDB_reader	mti_readers[1];
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} MDB_txninfo;
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/** @} */
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/** Common header for all page types.
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 * Overflow records occupy a number of contiguous pages with no
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 * headers on any page after the first.
 */
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typedef struct MDB_page {
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#define	mp_pgno	mp_p.p_pgno
#define	mp_next	mp_p.p_next
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	union {
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		pgno_t		p_pgno;	/**< page number */
		void *		p_next;	/**< for in-memory list of freed structs */
	} mp_p;
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	uint16_t	mp_pad;
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/**	@defgroup mdb_page	Page Flags
 *	@ingroup internal
 *	Flags for the page headers.
 *	@{
 */
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#define	P_BRANCH	 0x01		/**< branch page */
#define	P_LEAF		 0x02		/**< leaf page */
#define	P_OVERFLOW	 0x04		/**< overflow page */
#define	P_META		 0x08		/**< meta page */
#define	P_DIRTY		 0x10		/**< dirty page */
#define	P_LEAF2		 0x20		/**< for #MDB_DUPFIXED records */
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#define	P_SUBP		 0x40		/**< for #MDB_DUPSORT sub-pages */
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/** @} */
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	uint16_t	mp_flags;		/**< @ref mdb_page */
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#define mp_lower	mp_pb.pb.pb_lower
#define mp_upper	mp_pb.pb.pb_upper
#define mp_pages	mp_pb.pb_pages
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	union {
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		struct {
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			indx_t		pb_lower;		/**< lower bound of free space */
			indx_t		pb_upper;		/**< upper bound of free space */
		} pb;
		uint32_t	pb_pages;	/**< number of overflow pages */
	} mp_pb;
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	indx_t		mp_ptrs[1];		/**< dynamic size */
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} MDB_page;

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	/** Size of the page header, excluding dynamic data at the end */
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#define PAGEHDRSZ	 ((unsigned) offsetof(MDB_page, mp_ptrs))
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	/** Address of first usable data byte in a page, after the header */
#define METADATA(p)	 ((void *)((char *)(p) + PAGEHDRSZ))

	/** Number of nodes on a page */
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#define NUMKEYS(p)	 (((p)->mp_lower - PAGEHDRSZ) >> 1)
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	/** The amount of space remaining in the page */
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#define SIZELEFT(p)	 (indx_t)((p)->mp_upper - (p)->mp_lower)
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	/** The percentage of space used in the page, in tenths of a percent. */
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#define PAGEFILL(env, p) (1000L * ((env)->me_psize - PAGEHDRSZ - SIZELEFT(p)) / \
				((env)->me_psize - PAGEHDRSZ))
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	/** The minimum page fill factor, in tenths of a percent.
	 *	Pages emptier than this are candidates for merging.
	 */
#define FILL_THRESHOLD	 250

	/** Test if a page is a leaf page */
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#define IS_LEAF(p)	 F_ISSET((p)->mp_flags, P_LEAF)
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	/** Test if a page is a LEAF2 page */
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#define IS_LEAF2(p)	 F_ISSET((p)->mp_flags, P_LEAF2)
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	/** Test if a page is a branch page */
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#define IS_BRANCH(p)	 F_ISSET((p)->mp_flags, P_BRANCH)
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	/** Test if a page is an overflow page */
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#define IS_OVERFLOW(p)	 F_ISSET((p)->mp_flags, P_OVERFLOW)
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	/** Test if a page is a sub page */
#define IS_SUBP(p)	 F_ISSET((p)->mp_flags, P_SUBP)
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	/** The number of overflow pages needed to store the given size. */
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#define OVPAGES(size, psize)	((PAGEHDRSZ-1 + (size)) / (psize) + 1)
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	/** Header for a single key/data pair within a page.
	 * We guarantee 2-byte alignment for nodes.
	 */
typedef struct MDB_node {
	/** lo and hi are used for data size on leaf nodes and for
	 * child pgno on branch nodes. On 64 bit platforms, flags
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	 * is also used for pgno. (Branch nodes have no flags).
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	 * They are in host byte order in case that lets some
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	 * accesses be optimized into a 32-bit word access.
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	 */
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#define mn_lo mn_offset[BYTE_ORDER!=LITTLE_ENDIAN]
#define mn_hi mn_offset[BYTE_ORDER==LITTLE_ENDIAN] /**< part of dsize or pgno */
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	unsigned short	mn_offset[2];	/**< storage for #mn_lo and #mn_hi */
/** @defgroup mdb_node Node Flags
 *	@ingroup internal
 *	Flags for node headers.
 *	@{
 */
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#define F_BIGDATA	 0x01			/**< data put on overflow page */
#define F_SUBDATA	 0x02			/**< data is a sub-database */
#define F_DUPDATA	 0x04			/**< data has duplicates */
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/** valid flags for #mdb_node_add() */
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#define	NODE_ADD_FLAGS	(F_DUPDATA|F_SUBDATA|MDB_RESERVE|MDB_APPEND)
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/** @} */
	unsigned short	mn_flags;		/**< @ref mdb_node */
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	unsigned short	mn_ksize;		/**< key size */
	char		mn_data[1];			/**< key and data are appended here */
} MDB_node;

	/** Size of the node header, excluding dynamic data at the end */
#define NODESIZE	 offsetof(MDB_node, mn_data)

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	/** Bit position of top word in page number, for shifting mn_flags */
#define PGNO_TOPWORD ((pgno_t)-1 > 0xffffffffu ? 32 : 0)

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	/** Size of a node in a branch page with a given key.
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	 *	This is just the node header plus the key, there is no data.
	 */
#define INDXSIZE(k)	 (NODESIZE + ((k) == NULL ? 0 : (k)->mv_size))

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	/** Size of a node in a leaf page with a given key and data.
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	 *	This is node header plus key plus data size.
	 */
#define LEAFSIZE(k, d)	 (NODESIZE + (k)->mv_size + (d)->mv_size)

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	/** Address of node \b i in page \b p */
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#define NODEPTR(p, i)	 ((MDB_node *)((char *)(p) + (p)->mp_ptrs[i]))

	/** Address of the key for the node */
#define NODEKEY(node)	 (void *)((node)->mn_data)

	/** Address of the data for a node */
#define NODEDATA(node)	 (void *)((char *)(node)->mn_data + (node)->mn_ksize)

	/** Get the page number pointed to by a branch node */
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#define NODEPGNO(node) \
	((node)->mn_lo | ((pgno_t) (node)->mn_hi << 16) | \
	 (PGNO_TOPWORD ? ((pgno_t) (node)->mn_flags << PGNO_TOPWORD) : 0))
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	/** Set the page number in a branch node */
#define SETPGNO(node,pgno)	do { \
	(node)->mn_lo = (pgno) & 0xffff; (node)->mn_hi = (pgno) >> 16; \
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	if (PGNO_TOPWORD) (node)->mn_flags = (pgno) >> PGNO_TOPWORD; } while(0)
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	/** Get the size of the data in a leaf node */
#define NODEDSZ(node)	 ((node)->mn_lo | ((unsigned)(node)->mn_hi << 16))
	/** Set the size of the data for a leaf node */
#define SETDSZ(node,size)	do { \
	(node)->mn_lo = (size) & 0xffff; (node)->mn_hi = (size) >> 16;} while(0)
	/** The size of a key in a node */
#define NODEKSZ(node)	 ((node)->mn_ksize)

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	/** Copy a page number from src to dst */
#ifdef MISALIGNED_OK
#define COPY_PGNO(dst,src)	dst = src
#else
#if SIZE_MAX > 4294967295UL
#define COPY_PGNO(dst,src)	do { \
	unsigned short *s, *d;	\
	s = (unsigned short *)&(src);	\
	d = (unsigned short *)&(dst);	\
	*d++ = *s++;	\
	*d++ = *s++;	\
	*d++ = *s++;	\
	*d = *s;	\
} while (0)
#else
#define COPY_PGNO(dst,src)	do { \
	unsigned short *s, *d;	\
	s = (unsigned short *)&(src);	\
	d = (unsigned short *)&(dst);	\
	*d++ = *s++;	\
	*d = *s;	\
} while (0)
#endif
#endif
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	/** The address of a key in a LEAF2 page.
	 *	LEAF2 pages are used for #MDB_DUPFIXED sorted-duplicate sub-DBs.
	 *	There are no node headers, keys are stored contiguously.
	 */
#define LEAF2KEY(p, i, ks)	((char *)(p) + PAGEHDRSZ + ((i)*(ks)))

	/** Set the \b node's key into \b key, if requested. */
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#define MDB_SET_KEY(node, key)	{ if ((key) != NULL) { \
	(key)->mv_size = NODEKSZ(node); (key)->mv_data = NODEKEY(node); } }
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	/** Information about a single database in the environment. */
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typedef struct MDB_db {
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	uint32_t	md_pad;		/**< also ksize for LEAF2 pages */
	uint16_t	md_flags;	/**< @ref mdb_open */
	uint16_t	md_depth;	/**< depth of this tree */
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	pgno_t		md_branch_pages;	/**< number of internal pages */
	pgno_t		md_leaf_pages;		/**< number of leaf pages */
	pgno_t		md_overflow_pages;	/**< number of overflow pages */
	size_t		md_entries;		/**< number of data items */
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	pgno_t		md_root;		/**< the root page of this tree */
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} MDB_db;

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	/** Handle for the DB used to track free pages. */
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#define	FREE_DBI	0
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	/** Handle for the default DB. */
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#define	MAIN_DBI	1

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	/** Meta page content. */
typedef struct MDB_meta {
		/** Stamp identifying this as an MDB data file. It must be set
		 *	to #MDB_MAGIC. */
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	uint32_t	mm_magic;
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		/** Version number of this lock file. Must be set to #MDB_VERSION. */
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	uint32_t	mm_version;
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	void		*mm_address;		/**< address for fixed mapping */
	size_t		mm_mapsize;			/**< size of mmap region */
	MDB_db		mm_dbs[2];			/**< first is free space, 2nd is main db */
	/** The size of pages used in this DB */
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#define	mm_psize	mm_dbs[0].md_pad
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	/** Any persistent environment flags. @ref mdb_env */
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#define	mm_flags	mm_dbs[0].md_flags
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	pgno_t		mm_last_pg;			/**< last used page in file */
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	txnid_t		mm_txnid;			/**< txnid that committed this page */
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} MDB_meta;

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	/** Auxiliary DB info.
	 *	The information here is mostly static/read-only. There is
	 *	only a single copy of this record in the environment.
	 */
typedef struct MDB_dbx {
	MDB_val		md_name;		/**< name of the database */
	MDB_cmp_func	*md_cmp;	/**< function for comparing keys */
	MDB_cmp_func	*md_dcmp;	/**< function for comparing data items */
	MDB_rel_func	*md_rel;	/**< user relocate function */
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	void		*md_relctx;		/**< user-provided context for md_rel */
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} MDB_dbx;
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	/** A database transaction.
	 *	Every operation requires a transaction handle.
	 */
struct MDB_txn {
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	MDB_txn		*mt_parent;		/**< parent of a nested txn */
	MDB_txn		*mt_child;		/**< nested txn under this txn */
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	pgno_t		mt_next_pgno;	/**< next unallocated page */
	/** The ID of this transaction. IDs are integers incrementing from 1.
	 *	Only committed write transactions increment the ID. If a transaction
	 *	aborts, the ID may be re-used by the next writer.
	 */
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	txnid_t		mt_txnid;
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	MDB_env		*mt_env;		/**< the DB environment */
	/** The list of pages that became unused during this transaction.
	 */
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	IDL			mt_free_pgs;
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	union {
		ID2L	dirty_list;	/**< modified pages */
		MDB_reader	*reader;	/**< this thread's slot in the reader table */
	} mt_u;
	/** Array of records for each DB known in the environment. */
	MDB_dbx		*mt_dbxs;
	/** Array of MDB_db records for each known DB */
	MDB_db		*mt_dbs;
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/** @defgroup mt_dbflag	Transaction DB Flags
 *	@ingroup internal
 * @{
 */
#define DB_DIRTY	0x01		/**< DB was written in this txn */
#define DB_STALE	0x02		/**< DB record is older than txnID */
/** @} */
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	/** Array of cursors for each DB */
	MDB_cursor	**mt_cursors;
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	/** Array of flags for each DB */
	unsigned char	*mt_dbflags;
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	/**	Number of DB records in use. This number only ever increments;
	 *	we don't decrement it when individual DB handles are closed.
	 */
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	MDB_dbi		mt_numdbs;
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/** @defgroup mdb_txn	Transaction Flags
 *	@ingroup internal
 *	@{
 */
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#define MDB_TXN_RDONLY		0x01		/**< read-only transaction */
#define MDB_TXN_ERROR		0x02		/**< an error has occurred */
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/** @} */
	unsigned int	mt_flags;		/**< @ref mdb_txn */
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	/** Tracks which of the two meta pages was used at the start
	 * 	of this transaction.
	 */
	unsigned int	mt_toggle;
};
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/** Enough space for 2^32 nodes with minimum of 2 keys per node. I.e., plenty.
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 * At 4 keys per node, enough for 2^64 nodes, so there's probably no need to
 * raise this on a 64 bit machine.
 */
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#define CURSOR_STACK		 32
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struct MDB_xcursor;
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	/** Cursors are used for all DB operations */
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struct MDB_cursor {
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	/** Next cursor on this DB in this txn */
	MDB_cursor	*mc_next;
	/** Original cursor if this is a shadow */
	MDB_cursor	*mc_orig;
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	/** Context used for databases with #MDB_DUPSORT, otherwise NULL */
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	struct MDB_xcursor	*mc_xcursor;
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	/** The transaction that owns this cursor */
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	MDB_txn		*mc_txn;
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	/** The database handle this cursor operates on */
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	MDB_dbi		mc_dbi;
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	/** The database record for this cursor */
	MDB_db		*mc_db;
	/** The database auxiliary record for this cursor */
	MDB_dbx		*mc_dbx;
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	/** The @ref mt_dbflag for this database */
	unsigned char	*mc_dbflag;
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	unsigned short 	mc_snum;	/**< number of pushed pages */
	unsigned short	mc_top;		/**< index of top page, mc_snum-1 */
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/** @defgroup mdb_cursor	Cursor Flags
 *	@ingroup internal
 *	Cursor state flags.
 *	@{
 */
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#define C_INITIALIZED	0x01	/**< cursor has been initialized and is valid */
#define C_EOF	0x02			/**< No more data */
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#define C_SUB	0x04			/**< Cursor is a sub-cursor */
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#define C_SHADOW	0x08		/**< Cursor is a dup from a parent txn */
#define C_ALLOCD	0x10		/**< Cursor was malloc'd */
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/** @} */
	unsigned int	mc_flags;	/**< @ref mdb_cursor */
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	MDB_page	*mc_pg[CURSOR_STACK];	/**< stack of pushed pages */
	indx_t		mc_ki[CURSOR_STACK];	/**< stack of page indices */
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};

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	/** Context for sorted-dup records.
	 *	We could have gone to a fully recursive design, with arbitrarily
	 *	deep nesting of sub-databases. But for now we only handle these
	 *	levels - main DB, optional sub-DB, sorted-duplicate DB.
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	 */
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typedef struct MDB_xcursor {
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	/** A sub-cursor for traversing the Dup DB */
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	MDB_cursor mx_cursor;
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	/** The database record for this Dup DB */
	MDB_db	mx_db;
	/**	The auxiliary DB record for this Dup DB */
	MDB_dbx	mx_dbx;
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	/** The @ref mt_dbflag for this Dup DB */
	unsigned char mx_dbflag;
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} MDB_xcursor;

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	/** A set of pages freed by an earlier transaction. */
typedef struct MDB_oldpages {
	/** Usually we only read one record from the FREEDB at a time, but
	 *	in case we read more, this will chain them together.
	 */
	struct MDB_oldpages *mo_next;
	/**	The ID of the transaction in which these pages were freed. */
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	txnid_t		mo_txnid;
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	/** An #IDL of the pages */
	pgno_t		mo_pages[1];	/* dynamic */
} MDB_oldpages;

	/** The database environment. */
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struct MDB_env {
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	HANDLE		me_fd;		/**< The main data file */
	HANDLE		me_lfd;		/**< The lock file */
	HANDLE		me_mfd;			/**< just for writing the meta pages */
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	/** Failed to update the meta page. Probably an I/O error. */
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#define	MDB_FATAL_ERROR	0x80000000U
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	uint32_t 	me_flags;		/**< @ref mdb_env */
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	uint32_t	me_extrapad;	/**< unused for now */
	unsigned int	me_maxreaders;	/**< size of the reader table */
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	MDB_dbi		me_numdbs;		/**< number of DBs opened */
	MDB_dbi		me_maxdbs;		/**< size of the DB table */
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	char		*me_path;		/**< path to the DB files */
	char		*me_map;		/**< the memory map of the data file */
	MDB_txninfo	*me_txns;		/**< the memory map of the lock file */
	MDB_meta	*me_metas[2];	/**< pointers to the two meta pages */
	MDB_txn		*me_txn;		/**< current write transaction */
	size_t		me_mapsize;		/**< size of the data memory map */
	off_t		me_size;		/**< current file size */
	pgno_t		me_maxpg;		/**< me_mapsize / me_psize */
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	unsigned int	me_psize;	/**< size of a page, from #GET_PAGESIZE */
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	unsigned int	me_db_toggle;	/**< which DB table is current */
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	txnid_t		me_wtxnid;		/**< ID of last txn we committed */
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	MDB_dbx		*me_dbxs;		/**< array of static DB info */
	MDB_db		*me_dbs[2];		/**< two arrays of MDB_db info */
	MDB_oldpages *me_pghead;	/**< list of old page records */
	pthread_key_t	me_txkey;	/**< thread-key for readers */
	MDB_page	*me_dpages;		/**< list of malloc'd blocks for re-use */
	/** IDL of pages that became unused in a write txn */
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	IDL			me_free_pgs;
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	/** ID2L of pages that were written during a write txn */
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	ID2			me_dirty_list[MDB_IDL_UM_SIZE];
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	/** rwlock for the DB tables, if #LAZY_LOCKS is false */
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	LAZY_RWLOCK_DEF(me_dblock)
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#ifdef _WIN32
	HANDLE		me_rmutex;		/* Windows mutexes don't reside in shared mem */
	HANDLE		me_wmutex;
#endif
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#ifdef __APPLE__
	sem_t		*me_rmutex;		/* Apple doesn't support shared mutexes */
	sem_t		*me_wmutex;
#endif
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};
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	/** max number of pages to commit in one writev() call */
#define MDB_COMMIT_PAGES	 64
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static MDB_page *mdb_page_alloc(MDB_cursor *mc, int num);
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static MDB_page *mdb_page_new(MDB_cursor *mc, uint32_t flags, int num);
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static int 		mdb_page_touch(MDB_cursor *mc);
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static int  mdb_page_get(MDB_txn *txn, pgno_t pgno, MDB_page **mp);
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static int  mdb_page_search_root(MDB_cursor *mc,
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			    MDB_val *key, int modify);
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static int  mdb_page_search(MDB_cursor *mc,
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			    MDB_val *key, int modify);
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static int	mdb_page_merge(MDB_cursor *csrc, MDB_cursor *cdst);
static int	mdb_page_split(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_val *newkey, MDB_val *newdata,
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				pgno_t newpgno, unsigned int nflags);
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static int  mdb_env_read_header(MDB_env *env, MDB_meta *meta);
static int  mdb_env_read_meta(MDB_env *env, int *which);
static int  mdb_env_write_meta(MDB_txn *txn);
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static MDB_node *mdb_node_search(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_val *key, int *exactp);
static int  mdb_node_add(MDB_cursor *mc, indx_t indx,
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			    MDB_val *key, MDB_val *data, pgno_t pgno, unsigned int flags);
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static void mdb_node_del(MDB_page *mp, indx_t indx, int ksize);
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static void mdb_node_shrink(MDB_page *mp, indx_t indx);
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static int	mdb_node_move(MDB_cursor *csrc, MDB_cursor *cdst);
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static int  mdb_node_read(MDB_txn *txn, MDB_node *leaf, MDB_val *data);
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static size_t	mdb_leaf_size(MDB_env *env, MDB_val *key, MDB_val *data);
static size_t	mdb_branch_size(MDB_env *env, MDB_val *key);
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static int	mdb_rebalance(MDB_cursor *mc);
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static int	mdb_update_key(MDB_page *mp, indx_t indx, MDB_val *key);
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static void	mdb_cursor_pop(MDB_cursor *mc);
static int	mdb_cursor_push(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_page *mp);
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static int	mdb_cursor_del0(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_node *leaf);
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static int	mdb_cursor_sibling(MDB_cursor *mc, int move_right);
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static int	mdb_cursor_next(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_val *key, MDB_val *data, MDB_cursor_op op);
static int	mdb_cursor_prev(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_val *key, MDB_val *data, MDB_cursor_op op);
static int	mdb_cursor_set(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_val *key, MDB_val *data, MDB_cursor_op op,
				int *exactp);
static int	mdb_cursor_first(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_val *key, MDB_val *data);
static int	mdb_cursor_last(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_val *key, MDB_val *data);
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static void	mdb_cursor_init(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_txn *txn, MDB_dbi dbi, MDB_xcursor *mx);
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static void	mdb_xcursor_init0(MDB_cursor *mc);
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static void	mdb_xcursor_init1(MDB_cursor *mc, MDB_node *node);
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static int	mdb_drop0(MDB_cursor *mc, int subs);
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static void mdb_default_cmp(MDB_txn *txn, MDB_dbi dbi);

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/** @cond */
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static MDB_cmp_func	mdb_cmp_memn, mdb_cmp_memnr, mdb_cmp_int, mdb_cmp_cint, mdb_cmp_long;
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/** @endcond */
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#ifdef _WIN32
static SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR mdb_null_sd;
static SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES mdb_all_sa;
static int mdb_sec_inited;
#endif

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/** Return the library version info. */
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char *
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mdb_version(int *major, int *minor, int *patch)
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{
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	if (major) *major = MDB_VERSION_MAJOR;
	if (minor) *minor = MDB_VERSION_MINOR;
	if (patch) *patch = MDB_VERSION_PATCH;
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	return MDB_VERSION_STRING;
}

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/** Table of descriptions for MDB @ref errors */
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static char *const mdb_errstr[] = {
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	"MDB_KEYEXIST: Key/data pair already exists",
	"MDB_NOTFOUND: No matching key/data pair found",
	"MDB_PAGE_NOTFOUND: Requested page not found",
	"MDB_CORRUPTED: Located page was wrong type",
	"MDB_PANIC: Update of meta page failed",
	"MDB_VERSION_MISMATCH: Database environment version mismatch"
};

char *
mdb_strerror(int err)
{
	if (!err)
		return ("Successful return: 0");

	if (err >= MDB_KEYEXIST && err <= MDB_VERSION_MISMATCH)
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		return mdb_errstr[err - MDB_KEYEXIST];
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	return strerror(err);
}

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#if MDB_DEBUG
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/** Display a key in hexadecimal and return the address of the result.
 * @param[in] key the key to display
 * @param[in] buf the buffer to write into. Should always be #DKBUF.
 * @return The key in hexadecimal form.
 */
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char *
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mdb_dkey(MDB_val *key, char *buf)
{
	char *ptr = buf;
	unsigned char *c = key->mv_data;
	unsigned int i;
	if (key->mv_size > MAXKEYSIZE)
		return "MAXKEYSIZE";
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	/* may want to make this a dynamic check: if the key is mostly
	 * printable characters, print it as-is instead of converting to hex.
	 */
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#if 1
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	for (i=0; i<key->mv_size; i++)
		ptr += sprintf(ptr, "%02x", *c++);
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#else
	sprintf(buf, "%.*s", key->mv_size, key->mv_data);
#endif
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	return buf;
}
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#endif
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int
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mdb_cmp(MDB_txn *txn, MDB_dbi dbi, const MDB_val *a, const MDB_val *b)
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{
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	return txn->mt_dbxs[dbi].md_cmp(a, b);
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}

int
mdb_dcmp(MDB_txn *txn, MDB_dbi dbi, const MDB_val *a, const MDB_val *b)
{
	if (txn->mt_dbxs[dbi].md_dcmp)
		return txn->mt_dbxs[dbi].md_dcmp(a, b);
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	else
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		return EINVAL;	/* too bad you can't distinguish this from a valid result */
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}

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/** Allocate a single page.
 * Re-use old malloc'd pages first, otherwise just malloc.
 */
static MDB_page *
mdb_page_malloc(MDB_cursor *mc) {
	MDB_page *ret;
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	size_t sz = mc->mc_txn->mt_env->me_psize;
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	if (mc->mc_txn->mt_env->me_dpages) {
		ret = mc->mc_txn->mt_env->me_dpages;
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		VGMEMP_ALLOC(mc->mc_txn->mt_env, ret, sz);
		VGMEMP_DEFINED(ret, sizeof(ret->mp_next));
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		mc->mc_txn->mt_env->me_dpages = ret->mp_next;
	} else {
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		ret = malloc(sz);
		VGMEMP_ALLOC(mc->mc_txn->mt_env, ret, sz);
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	}
	return ret;
}

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/** Allocate pages for writing.
 * If there are free pages available from older transactions, they
 * will be re-used first. Otherwise a new page will be allocated.
 * @param[in] mc cursor A cursor handle identifying the transaction and
 *	database for which we are allocating.
 * @param[in] num the number of pages to allocate.
 * @return Address of the allocated page(s). Requests for multiple pages
 *  will always be satisfied by a single contiguous chunk of memory.
 */
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mdb_page_alloc(MDB_cursor *mc, int num)
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{
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	MDB_txn *txn = mc->mc_txn;
	MDB_page *np;
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	pgno_t pgno = P_INVALID;
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	ID2 mid;
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	if (txn->mt_txnid > 2) {

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		if (!txn->mt_env->me_pghead && mc->mc_dbi != FREE_DBI